Welche pädagogischen Aspekte gibt es bei der Trainingsarbeit zu bedenken? (German Edition)
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Even before the Nuremberg laws had been introduced the Jews were already being subjected to gross acts of humiliation by the Nazis and their fellow Austrian citizens. Just one month after the Anschluss Shirer records the scenes he encountered in the streets of Vienna : What one now saw in Vienna was almost unbelievable. The Viennese, usually so soft and sentimental, were behaving worse than the Germans especially towards the Jews.
Every time you went out you saw gangs of Jewish men and women, with jeering storm troopers standing over them and taunting crowds shouting insults, on their hands and knees, scrubbing Schuschnigg slogans off the sidewalks and curbs. I had never seen quite such humiliating scenes in Berlin or Nuremberg. Or such Nazi sadism. The S. Foreign Jews or foreigners whom the Nazi thugs fancied looked like Jews also were seized and put to work at menial tasks. Inferring from her reading of the autobiographies of four Austrian writers forced to flee Austria around , Jennifer E.
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Michaels ascribes the success of the Anschluss to: […] the unwillingness of many to see the danger prior to the Anschluss; the sense of shock when it came; the joy of part of the population and the despair of others; and the breathtaking speed and brutality of the take-over. Finally, on the international front it must be noted that France and Great Britain completely failed to come to the aid of the Austrian government in its efforts to keep Austria independent of Germany. The two pillars of democracy in the West — 20 as historian Helmut Andics points out — seemed to be at pains, in fact, to keep Hitler happy.
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They exchanged ambassadors and contracts with Hitler and had clearly accepted his leadership and his methods. Britain, like France and other countries, was unwilling to intervene, as this would have meant using force. Churchill seemed to Shirer to be the only voice in British parliament who was acknowledging the significance of what was happening. This paints too simple a picture, however. Many returning in from prison and the front looked to become reinstated in their former positions of employment and take up where they had left off in Nostalgia and mourning for the Habsburg Monarchy continued to characterize the lives of many — including Jewish — Austrian intellectuals after the establishment of the 1st Austrian Republic.
Ich habe dort nichts mehr zu suchen. Ich bin gewohnt in einem Haus zu leben, nicht in Kabinen.
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Daviau: , xviii 6 From: Roth, J. The most notable example of this is Hans Weigel, who returned to Vienna from his exile in Switzerland after WWII and became a highly influential literary critic and mentor. Along with a handful of like-minded critics, Weigel determined the success or failure of writers in post-war Austria. Weigel and his colleagues also ensured that the experimental authors of the Wiener Gruppe remained unpublished for decades. On 25 November the first free elections took place and a coalition was formed with the three parties.
Once again, Austria is encouraged by the international community to turn its back on its recent past. After , when the fear of the occupying allied forces disappeared, signs of German nationalist tendencies began to gain increased profile. In those parts of Carinthia, for example, where both German and Slovenian were native languages, classes in Slovenian were dropped from the curriculum. In spite of such efforts on the part of the anti-fascist government, however, by parts of Austria seemed to be well on the way to a collective German Nationalism with Nazi elements. The actual victims of the Nazi regime, who could have continued to remind Austria of its guilt, were marginalized and ignored.
Slowly — almost half a century after the events — Austria was compelled to re-visit its past. For years they have viewed with apprehension the possible return of the previous owners, whose property they took at a price certainly far below its true value. Now at last — forty-two years later — the trauma has reached us.
We have to realize that we are not loved any more and perhaps will not be loved until we face ourselves. He led the latter until his death in October Born of staunch members of the Nazi Party — his father had been a member of the illegal NSDAP before the Anschluss and was involved in the attempted putsch of and his mother a leader in the BMD14 — Haider was best known for his xenophobia, antiSemitic statements and anti-immigration slogans. Januar EU sanctions were put in place and demonstrations against the coalition were staged abroad and in Vienna, the so-called Thursday demonstrations, which continued until the middle of Haider subsequently withdrew from the leadership of the party but continued to exert influence on his party leaders in government.
Haider also served several terms as governor of his native Carinthia, attaining his first term of office in on the basis of his anti-Slovenian slogans, and was still holding this office at the time of his death on 11 October Furthermore, there is no reason to believe that the sympathy among a certain sector of the population for his views will have disappeared simply because Haider is no longer around to galvanise it.
Und er sei der beste Freund gewesen, den er je gehabt habe, so Petzner. After a general introduction, it will offer an overview of publications to date which examine the activities and working conditions of non-institutionalized theatre practitioners in Styria and Vienna, and the subsidized interest groups that facilitate cooperative efforts to improve the working conditions of free theatre artists by providing support structures and promoting the professionalisation of their work.
I will discuss the literature overview together with the interest groups, as much of the literature has arisen by virtue of and is published by the interest groups. Many free theatre practitioners do not envisage a possibility for this in institutionalized theatre, and consequently those who choose to work in the significantly more precarious free sector include many who have left the security of the establishment.
Free theatre practitioners come from a wide range of backgrounds: some have formal conservatory training, others field-related academic qualifications, for example Theatre Studies, Theatre Pedagogy, and Applied Theater; others again 21 The areas I have identified here each merit separate studies in their own right, and the following, therefore, claims to give no more than a brief overview as context for the subsequent discussion of the pieces of theatre in question.
Practitioners directors, actors, musicians, set and sound design artists, technicians, support and administrative staff are employed as civil servants and are entitled to all the customary social security benefits of this category. These are regarded as independent employers by the state and are bound therefore by employment regulations such as the obligation to make social security payments for all of their employees.
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Forming the broad base at the bottom of the pyramid is a wide range of independent or free theatre artists operating either as solo artists or in ensembles. They receive the smallest slice of the culture budget, are bound also, however, by strict employment regulations and the majority contend with an on-going struggle for survival. Many also engage in administration-related training, for example, bookkeeping, computer graphics, and employment law.
As regards aesthetics, as Florian Malzacher25 writes 10 , free theatre could mean, for instance, postdramatic, non-dramatic, experimental, or avant-garde theatre; it could also mean performative art, devised theatre or live art. Above all, as Malzacher argues, theatre is essentially a meta-art form that can integrate all art forms, and the idea that it should be at the service of the literary text is a relatively recent one.
For the purposes of this study I am interested only in the kinds of free theatre that break with conventional modes of theatre practice. Furthermore, the barriers between free theatre and the establishment have become more permeable in recent times as artists and directors from the independent sector develop relationships with international festivals and state-run theatres. Malzacher 10 dispels any illusion that might prevail, however, of the confident, selfdetermined and autonomously decision-making free artist, arguing that this idea remains in most cases a neo-liberal delusion of freedom.
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Although it is often more difficult as an Austrian free theatre artist to penetrate the boundary between the free theatre scene and the establishment in Austria than for non-nationals, who have perhaps gained recognition in the field on an international scale, there is evidence of increased activity in recent years, which is not without its dangers, however.
A crucial factor in overcoming such threats is critical mass, and there is a general consensus that networking within the scene — both in an international and a regional context — is the single most significant determining factor for the life and survival of the free theatre scene. Schweighofer and Hauswirth 20 assert that the research work taking place in the free theatre scene happens in the context of international relationships and developments.
Malzacher reinforces this with his contention that the free theatre scene is, in fact, inconceivable outside of an international context 11 : Doch die avancierte freie Theaterszene ist ohnehin nur international zu denken.
besttatimul.tk While international frameworks and influences are indispensable to the free theatre scene in the German-speaking countries, he also points to the fact that certain prominent international influences were supported at an early stage of their development by, for instance, German subsidies: internationally renowned experimental theatre groups such as the Wooster Group from New York and the British groups Forced Entertainment and Lone Twin were supported at an early stage in their development by German co-production theatres and festivals. However, cooperative efforts among groups in a given region are likewise crucial for the 37 survival of this sector of theatre production.
Vienna The first study of its kind to appear in relation to Vienna and in Austria entitled Zur soziologen Lage der freien Theaterschaffenden by Robert Harauer was published in A publication emerging from this event entitled European Off Network. Government support for the Performing Arts in EU member states. Experiences, perspectives, best practices, which offers not just a pan-European overview of the working circumstances of independent artists and companies in Europe but also individual national portraits of fifteen EU member states including Austria.
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These companies, however, have also been included in the Vienna theatre reform Elischka, A total of 1, artists across a range of disciplines responded out of which a data base was created as the basis for an analysis. Part 2 is due to appear in the second September edition. In this document Leder highlights the importance of this law, first introduced in and re-introduced in , which was designed to protect actors from self- and social exploitation, and poverty. This law is considered to be unique in the world. Discussed, furthermore, are the implications for artists in the free sector arising out of a combination of subsidy cuts that were introduced in the mid s and changes in the employment laws introduced in in terms of social security payments.
These circumstances have led to a two-tier system between actors employed as civil servants in the state theatres and those working in smaller independent theatres on mainly project-based contracts. Styria 32 This study can be downloaded at www. The aim of this study was to profile and document the formal structures in operation and characteristic behavioural patterns of free theatre ensembles in Styria Schweighofer and Hauswirth, 8. In order to achieve this aim, information was gathered by means of questionnaires from extant ensembles in three identified categories: amateur theatre companies, free theatre ensembles, and so-called Theaterklubs — amateurs and professionals working together to realise theatre productions In this study, apart from the historical overview afforded, three categories of contemporary amateur theatre groups in the province of Styria are identified with exemplary profiles of individual groups given in each case: traditional groups, traditional groups with a high supra-regional profile, and semiprofessional groups.
While these are important and valuable studies they are of limited relevance to the category of theatre makers with which this study concerns itself. I will, therefore, make reference solely to Theaterland Steiermark in this discussion.