Natural Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Treatment (Natural Health Book 16)
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Euphemisms and expressions used between parents and children such as wee , pee , and many others have long existed. Lant is a word for aged urine, originating from the Old English word land referring to urine in general. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Liquid by-product of metabolism in the bodies of many animals, including humans. Main article: Renal physiology. Further information: Urinalysis. See also: Abnormal urine color. Dark red urine due to choluria. Further information: Lant. Main article: Potassium nitrate.
See also: Urophagia. Guyton; John Edward Hall Textbook of medical physiology 11 ed. Elsevier Saunders. Archived from the original on 26 May Retrieved 26 September Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology.
Br Med J. Gastronaut: adventures in food for the romantic, the foolhardy, and the brave. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Retrieved 27 April December 27, Archived from the original on Retrieved MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on December 17, Retrieved December 26, We did not find evidence that urinary acidification was responsible for the observed effect, since the median pH of urine samples in the cranberry group 6. While cranberry juice has been advocated as a urinary acidifier to prevent urinary tract infections, not all studies have shown a reduction in urine pH with cranberry juice ingestion, even with consumption of mL per day.
Retrieved on Pearce; Amy B. Rosenfeld; Michael J. Zilliox; Elizabeth R. Wolfe; Paul C. Schreckenberger 26 December Journal of Clinical Microbiology. Archived from the original on 11 June Retrieved 18 May Science News. Archived from the original on 22 June Retrieved 22 June Madigan; Thomas D. Brock Brock biology of microorganisms. Retrieved 10 September New York, New York: Springer: Technology review of urine diversion components - Overview on urine diversion components such as waterless urinals, urine diversion toilets, urine storage and reuse systems.
The Usefulness of urine". Aquamor, Harare, Zimbabwe. Archived from the original on 26 July Retrieved 6 December Ecowaters Books. Stockholm Water Company. Archived PDF from the original on Neutrophils are the most rapid and abundant responders to the infected urinary tract Despite counterintuitive phenotypes with respect to cytokine knock-down, antibody-mediated knockdown of the neutrophil population confirmed their crucial role in bacterial clearance, especially within the kidney Lastly, the electrostatic properties of the UPEC P fimbrial tip adhesin may interfere with neutrophil binding, a potential host response evasion tactic specific to the kidney Infection studies in mice lacking Tip-DCs suggested that they are not necessary for the host response to acute UTI Similar to what was observed for DCs, there appears to be a resident population of macrophages in bladder tissue that increases by several orders of magnitude in response to UTI Monocytes expressing high levels of Gr-1, which can give rise to macrophages or DCs, are also recruited to the bladder in response to UPEC infection.
Some of the factors utilized by neutrophils, macrophages, and DCs for pathogen uptake and destruction have been described during UTI. With respect to the complement system, it appears that UPEC is able to bind C3 to enter host uroepithelial cells via the surface receptors Crry or CD46 As C3 levels are significantly higher in the urine of UTI patients 96 UPEC may stimulate C3 production for pathogenic means or has evolved to exploit this host defense factor. Infection studies using severe combined immunodeficient SCID mice that lack functional B and T cells and nude mice that lack thymically derived T cells provide preliminary evidence of a role for innate-like lymphocytes ILLs in acute UTI host defense After a 2-day primary infection, SCID mice had significantly higher bacterial counts in their bladder and kidneys, while nude mice were colonized similarly to wild-type animals The lack of a colonization phenotype in nude mice suggests that either antibody responses independent of thymus-derived T-cell help or extrathymically produced T cells may play a role in innate clearance of UPEC.
The latter suggestion has some experimental support. B-1 cells spontaneously secrete large quantities of polyspecific IgM against bacterial and self-antigens, and in contrast to conventional B-2 B cells, do not require T-cell help JHD mice, lacking both B-1 and B-2 cells infected and monitored over a day time period exhibited no significant increase in incidence or severity of cystitis Consistent with this, a resident population of NK1. Studies using a systemic E.
Although susceptibility to UTI thus far appears to be related primarily to function of the innate immune system, additional determinants are likely important in this polygenic phenotype. The individual's response to UTI is variable and the susceptibility to the infection is inheritable. Lundstedt et al.
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A evaluation of a familal predisposition about women with recurrent UTI described that Reduced expression levels of CXCR1 and TLR4 in neutrophils are associated with pyelonephritis, recurrent cystitis, and asymptomatic bacteriuria in children and premenopausal women 25 78 ; Other mediators also shape the extent of the polymorphonuclear leukocyte PMN response to infection. Perpetuation of the PMN response might be controlled by cytokines such as IL, which has an emerging role in bridging innate to adaptive immunity and is present at high levels in the bladder at later time points.
Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 PAI-1 influences cell migration through its effects on integrin binding; upon UPEC infection of mice lacking PAI-1, kidneys bore significantly higher bacterial burdens and fewer PMN infiltrates than wild-type counterparts did Finally, the secretion of a number of soluble antibacterial compounds into the urinary tract is induced by UPEC infection.
Among short antibacterial peptides, the human cathelicidin LL is detectable in the urine during human cystitis, and mice deficient in its ortholog CRAMP demonstrate increased susceptibility to UTI Existing data regarding adaptive immune responses to UPEC are relatively limited. In a seminal study, Thumbikat and colleagues engineered a strain of UPEC to express ovalbumin to examine mechanisms behind antigen-specific adaptive immune responses in experimental UTI This result suggests that protection derived from natural infection is antibody mediated, as UPEC-specific antibody-secreting plasma cells could be present in both splenocyte and enriched T-cell preparations.
This result suggests that simply reconstituting immunosuppressed mice with lymphoid cells provides the means likely stimulatory cytokines for phagocytic cells for enhanced clearance. Conversely, wild-type recipient mice used in the former study only exhibited enhanced clearance when given cells or serum from antigen-educated, vaccinated donors , indicating that enhanced protection in individuals with intact immune systems will be provided only by stimulation of an effective adaptive immune response. T-cell subsets are characterized by transcription factors and cytokines involved in their differentiation and the particular effector cytokines they secrete.
DC phagocytosis of infected apoptotic cells is the key event required for DCs to secrete the cytokine milieu necessary for Th17 development , and both DCs and infected apoptotic cells are present in the bladder during UTI. Despite this connection, ILA is dispensable for the generation of a protective response in a murine reinfection model, suggesting that Th17 cells may not play a role in adaptive responses to UPEC infection Lastly, the role of Treg subsets in UTI host defense has not been formally examined.
The genitourinary tract has been recognized as part of the secretory immune system UPEC-specific antibodies are detected in the urine of infected patients and in the urine or serum of animals exposed to UPEC antigens Patient studies have also suggested that antibody responses to pyelonephritis are, in general, stronger and last longer than humoral responses to cystitis Analysis of murine urine and serum samples collected before and after vaccination with OMP iron receptors allowed identification of immunological correlates of vaccine-induced protection against UTI Specifically, levels of either urinary IgA or serum IgG relative to serum IgM; denoted the class switch index inversely correlated with bladder colonization in vaccinated mice Presumably, urinary IgA plays a direct role in UPEC clearance from the bladder mucosa, while IgG may be a marker for class switching by B cells or also play a direct role in mucosal bacterial clearance.
As mentioned earlier, infected JHD mice had wild-type levels of colonization in response to primary infection, suggesting that B cells have no role in innate clearance of UPEC However, this result is not unexpected since both antigen presentation and antibody-mediated protection provided by B cells would likely play a role in adaptive responses, indicating a need for reevaluation of these mice in UPEC reinfection and vaccination challenge models.
There are several practiced and proposed therapeutics for UTI management. Prophylactic treatments include estrogen in postmenopausal women or cranberry juice although the efficacy of the former remains controversial. Immunomodation strategies are emerging therapies for UTIs especially in the setting of increasing antimicrobial resistance. Since the lining of the urinary tract is highly enriched in TLR4 molecules, administering TLR4 specific ligands directly to the urinary tract could trigger TLR4 mediated innate immune responses thereby enhancing local reactivity and resistance to infection.
Treatment of UPEC-infected mice with forskolin, a drug that increases intracellular cyclic AMP cAMP levels, expels UPEC from intracellular vesicles into the extracellular milieu, rendering the bacteria susceptible to immune responses and antibiotics Similarly, exposing the bladder to protamine sulfate, a highly cationic protein, removes bound and intracellular UPEC by causing umbrella cells to exfoliate 63 , unfortunately with a significant level of discomfort, as reported by study volunteers In addition to a number of nonspecific chemical treatments , both small-molecule inhibitors and specific antibody directed against FimH demonstrated some utility in preventing bacterial adherence.
While antibiotic therapy remains the standard treatment for UTI, overuse leads to deleterious alterations of the normal host microbiota and selection for resistant strains , prompting the need for vaccine-mediated prevention of UTI. These suggest that similar to LPS, APS can activate pre-inflammatory factor secretion during the early stages of infection similar to LPS, promote TLR4 expression, and involve mucosal innate immunity of the urinary tract. However it remains to be seen whether this herbal medicine can be a therapeutic option for UTI. These observations suggest that activators of the TLR4 signalling pathway in the urinary tract can be effective therapeutic agents against infections.click here
Everything you need to know about urinary tract infections
Furthermore, it is not necessary to use TLR4 ligands for activation of the pathway. Inducers of downstream substrates of the pathway are also effective activators of the innate immune response. A TLR4 ligand with greatly improved safety profiles, such as monophosphoryl lipid MPL , could be used in its place The involvement of TLRs in the immune response to UTI and current knowledge of their ability to incite innate and direct adaptive responses make them attractive adjuvant candidates for UTI vaccines These and other mucosal adjuvants and variations in vaccination routes and schedules must be tested in an effort to generate UPEC-specific local and systemic antibodies and optimize production of immunological memory, not tolerance.
A more detailed knowledge of adaptive immune responses to UPEC is a prerequisite for the development of next-generation candidate vaccines for the prevention of UTI. More recently, a variety of experimental approaches have been applied to search for immunodominant epitopes, revealing an array of new candidate targets, and thus a number of vaccine antigens have been explored Early vaccine studies focused on the lipopolysaccharide LPS side chain O antigen There are trends regarding the frequencies of particular O antigens among UTI isolates and O-antigen-specific antibodies demonstrate an anti-adhesive effect Nonetheless, significant structural heterogeneity may represent an insurmountable obstacle for development of an O-antigen-based vaccine.
Furthermore, a study evaluating antibody responses in mice intranasally vaccinated with a killed E.
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Later studies involved vaccines directed against particular virulence factors. The pore-forming toxin alpha-hemolysin HlyA and P fimbriae are proposed minimal factors required for colonization of and dissemination from the kidney P fimbriae are adherence organelles that play a role in kidney colonization in mice and humans There are convincing data using both murine and primate models that vaccination against P fimbriae or HlyA prevents renal colonization and damage.
Additionally, to overcome P fimbrial allelic variability, linear peptide sequences that generated cross-reactive antibodies were evaluated as protective antigens Despite these successes, vaccines targeting P fimbriae may not be effective because of their limited role during bladder colonization.
Type 1 fimbria is a bona fide virulence factor of UPEC and, in contrast to P fimbria, is critical for bladder colonization Animals vaccinated with various components of type 1 fimbriae had increased levels of antigen-specific antibodies and decreased levels of colonization upon challenge Unfortunately, expression of type 1 fimbria is subject to phase variation, allowing UPEC to evade humoral responses targeting this organelle All play a role in removing waste from your body.
Your kidneys — a pair of bean-shaped organs located toward the back of your upper abdomen — filter waste from your blood and regulate the concentrations of many substances. Tubes called ureters carry urine from your kidneys to the bladder, where it's stored until it exits your body through the urethra. UTIs typically occur when bacteria outside the body enter the urinary tract through the urethra and begin to multiply. Most cases of cystitis are caused by a type of Escherichia coli E. Bacterial bladder infections may occur in women as a result of sexual intercourse.
But even sexually inactive girls and women are susceptible to lower urinary tract infections because the female genital area often harbors bacteria that can cause cystitis. Although bacterial infections are the most common cause of cystitis, a number of noninfectious factors also may cause the bladder to become inflamed. Some examples include:. Some people are more likely than others to develop bladder infections or recurrent urinary tract infections. Women are one such group. A key reason is physical anatomy. Women have a shorter urethra, which cuts down on the distance bacteria must travel to reach the bladder.
When treated promptly and properly, bladder infections rarely lead to complications. But left untreated, they can become something more serious.
Possible role of L-form switching in recurrent urinary tract infection
Complications may include:. Kidney infection. An untreated bladder infection can lead to kidney infection, also called pyelonephritis pie-uh-low-nuh-FRY-tis.
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Kidney infections may permanently damage your kidneys. Young children and older adults are at the greatest risk of kidney damage from bladder infections because their symptoms are often overlooked or mistaken for other conditions. Blood in the urine.
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With cystitis, you may have blood cells in your urine that can be seen only with a microscope microscopic hematuria and that usually resolves with treatment.