Evaluación de los centros educativos (Spanish Edition)

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Evaluation of the residents' performance in theory knowledge, hinged on class participation, presentation of assigned topics and exams. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Didn't get the message? Find out why Add to Clipboard. Add to Collections. Order articles. Fetching bibliography My Bibliography Add to Bibliography. Generate a file for use with external citation management software. Create File. Gac Med Mex. Background: Teaching strategies have been defined as procedures, means or resources that teachers used to promote meaningful learning.

Aim: Identify teaching strategies and evaluation used by the professor with residents in tertiary hospitals health care. An important element from NES, it is the Teaching Professional Service TPS at the public educational system, which requires solid processes of evaluation focused more on cultural and contextual opportunities and constraints faced by educational professionals in service. In order to foster fairer, useful and feasibility evaluation for educational professionals, the Ministry of Education, through the Center for Educational Evaluation of Yucatan State, developed a Public Consult to identify the main characteristics that professionals within the TPS should develop within their educational practice.


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The Public Consult included participation from teachers, principals, academic supervisors and pedagogical advisors from elementary education. Mexico is currently experiencing several reforms within its whole system.

A relevant case is the Educational Reform for Public Education in both elementary and middle educational levels. This Reform establishes that every professional within the Teaching Professional Service TPS 1 must evaluate under solid and fair processes.

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La evaluación en los estudios de traducción

As part of this process, every State has the moral and social responsibility to align its own educational law for public education in order to accomplish the federal demands and provide all conditions necessary to develop it DOF, b, c, a, b; DOGEY, Despite criticism to this Educational Reform, Yucatan State remained open to the dialog between society and government. This project visualized the democratic participation from teachers, pedagogical assessors, principals and academic supervisors. The purpose of that project was to obtain opinions from those participants for establishing criteria regarding current characteristics about their Admission, Retention professional performance , Promotion and Acknowledgment processes within the TPS in Yucatan.

In this paper, we only present the results regarding to professional performance characteristics from principals in elementary education. As Donaldson and Papay argued, principals develop strategic activities that impact directly to the educational achievement. In this sense, any educational reform affects those activities related to educational success.. Education has become the best way for any society to face deep and new challenges and transformations OECD, To make this possible, it is required different educational perspectives that promote accurate competencies necessary by societies and economies UNESCO, An educational perspective within this context means going further than literacy and acquisition of basic knowledge.

It implies new teaching and learning contexts and approaches that promote a more justice, social equity and solidarity world UNESCO, According to Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development 5 the quality of elementary education could prepare students with solid basis to help them for their lives. This means that quality education must be conceived as education that assures people achieve knowledge, capacities, abilities and attitudes focused to attain a sustainable adult life OECD, Addressing this goal under a legal framework, the Mexican Government reformed the educational system in both elementary and middle educational levels, making responsible to governmental authorities for providing necessary conditions to practice an education of quality DOF, c, a, b.

Within this legal framework, evaluation is one of the elements included within the National Educational System NES 6 and becomes a fundamental element to understand and identify necessary aspects which led us to education of quality DOF, c, b. This work allows establishing the main characteristics that EP must possess for belonging to the TPS in elementary and middle education levels. Under this framework, educational professionals have the duty for participating in all evaluation processes proposed by the NIEE DOF, b..

In this sense, Fayol and Taylor , Jones and George state main leader characteristics, such as physical health, intelligence, personal and professional ethic, reflexive, responsible, shared interests, knowledge about management, functions related to general culture knowledge, competitiveness, and tolerance to stress.. As Leithwood and Jantzi , and Rojas and Gaspar emphasize, a leader promotes social participation between a community.

Weinstein et al. Focused more in educational achievement, we analyzed from literature review different types of scholar leadership. Distributed or shared leadership promote participation between collaborators and delegating responsibilities Leithwood et al.

Systematic leadership states that principals gets association with others educative areas or groups to accomplish goals at educational levels and ensure successful in scholar communities Hopkins, The O-LS had the purpose to obtain, from mayor representativeness from all professionals in the TPS, opinion about the main characteristics that principals must possess for the different processes Admission, Performance, Promotion and Acknowledgment.

Journal of Behavior, Health & Social Issues

The Focus Group FG had the purpose to understand in depth from principals, the most important characteristics about promotion and performance in their own function.. For O-LS and FG techniques, we proposed a list of ideal characteristics, previously elaborated and validated by experts. As a result of this validation, we made adjustments that allow presenting the final list of characteristics.. The O-LS consisted on an internet platform in which principals could select and rank those ideal characteristics. For this article particularly, we present results regarding to Performance process.

In this technique, principals could suggest evidences that should support evaluation for each characteristic.


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We selected this strategy to gather a big number of participants and we used technological resources available in the CEEYS. As McLuhan indicates, using technology should be obtained more participation because it can optimize human and material resources such as number of staff, and time and money for moving to one from another place, and printed questionnaires. In this sense, we consider that principals would require electric power, access to a computer, internet and abilities for using those resources..

To ensure principals answer the O-LS once, they have to provide their Federal Taxpayer Registration and key information from schools. In FG we invite to principals mainly focus and discuss on their most important characteristics of performance process.. The criteria for selecting participants in FG consisted on 1 principals have minimum two years in service with this function; 2 they pertain to different localities from Yucatan; 3 they participate in professional development courses, and 4 essentially, they have not participated in O-LS.

With this information, we identified schools with the most representativeness of the nine modalities. According to this information, we sent invitation letters to head of educational levels from elementary education with the purpose they select principals from those schools identified.. We analyzed through this method evidences that support evaluation for each characteristic and other additional characteristics suggested by participants.. For both techniques, we obtained the SW by assigning the major number to the characteristic ranked in first place.

For instance, principals had to rank 26 performance characteristics from the most important to the less one. To facilitate analysis, we identified the characteristics by letters. We assigned 26 points to the characteristic selected as number one, 25 points to the characteristic selected as number two, and so on the total of characteristics..

There were 93 principals from preschool, 55 from primary, 24 from secondary, and 14 from special education level.. Participants selected those characteristics that all principal should possess.

Translation of «evaluación» into 25 languages

After that, they ranked those selected characteristics from the highest number to the lowest importance. Performance characteristics for principals in elementary education.. Semantic Weight and Quantitative Semantic Distance for performance characteristics of principals in elementary education.. Quantitative Semantic Distance for performance characteristics of principals in elementary education..

Principals indicated as most important three characteristics regarding to prove knowledge on content and educational approaches of elementary education letter A , having professional development and constant training within the leading function letter D , and promote dialog, teamwork, and exposition of ideas about educational experiences and problems letter J.

This suggests that principals considered more important having knowledge on content and educational approaches of elementary education.. One important concerning within the project was about the main evidences, which help evaluate the characteristic selected. Table 2 shows some of those evidences proposed by principals for evaluating three most important characteristics..

EVALUACIÓN EN CENTROS EDUCATIVOS

Main evidences to support evaluation for each performance characteristic of principals in elementary education.. Principals recommended additional performance characteristics. These were categorized by values such as: proving professional honesty , attitudes such as: being analytic , mental health such as: having mental and psychologic capacity for teaching and leading , and having general culture knowledge about history, civic, arts and environment see Table Categories for additional performance characteristics from O-LS suggested by principals in elementary education..

We developed nine FG during two different days. In FG technique, we had 51 participants from which 15 of them worked in preschool, 14 in primary and 22 in secondary level. We also identified that principals belong to different kind of schools. For example, 20 principals worked in general and state schools; 20 in rural, four in technical; and seven principals are from special education see Table Demographic characteristics of schools where principals worked.. From results of FG , we decided only present the best ten characteristics ranked by principals about performance.

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We decided only present the ten most important ones because some characteristics in the list were not selected and others obtained a low SW.. Performance characteristics for principals in elementary education from FG.. Results from FG indicate that in preschool, primary and secondary educational levels there are similitudes regarding the most important characteristics principals must possess.

In FG principals had the space for recommending additional performance characteristics that were not considered within the list see Table Categories for additional performance characteristics from FG suggested by principals in elementary education.. We identify a major number characteristics emphasized within the educational praxis dimension.

This result has much coherence because characteristics from the other four dimensions also are reflected within the educational praxis.. Our study results not only show characteristics that must integrate the principal's profile according literature review and the opinion from participants, but also to recognize those characteristics that represent the mayor relevance for principals.

In this section we present discussion from the theoretical framework and our results according to five established dimensions.. Also principals must be the manager who is characterized by possessing pedagogical leadership and to make decisions with collaborators in a democratic and participatory way Leithwood et al. As Hopkins and our results suggest, for principals it is important being associated with other educational units to achieve goals that ensure success in school and for other EP, who are involved with.

For Ethical and Identity Professional dimension, as Fayol and Taylor , and Jones and George state, our results suggest that a leader must develop ethical relationships with other colleagues.. We conclude that principals assert that characteristics related to their performance within a local context are leadership, knowledge of content, promotion of dialog, the enforcement of general regulations and bylaws, and having professional development are the most important to contribute for raising the quality of education..

We analyzed as something important, the development of a democratic process, which involved those affected by the current Educational Reform in Mexico.. The results of Public Consult provided solid information that supports our proposals required at national level.. Principals participated in re-building and reflecting about their current performance characteristic including both national and local contexts. It is important to highlight that these results are only part of our evidence that shows how our proposal have a significant relationship with the established national performance characteristics and also have a strong relationship with the theoretical framework from pedagogical leadership.

In this sense, the theoretical analysis and our results allowed understand the pedagogical leadership as the cohesive element in every characteristic of principal's performance profile at elementary educational level.. Moreover, Yucatan was the pioneer for promoting a democratic process which re-building the set of characteristics that integrates the functions of EP.

This project could provide experiences and knowledge to develop democratic, fair, and equity evaluation processes within educational system.. It is important to highlight that our study could lead to other researches focused to understand how principals, at local and national level, perform those characteristics identified in our study, mainly from the pedagogical leadership perspective..

La Evaluación Gratuita de Niños

Finally, some of our challenges were the participation of principals in the O-LS which was less than expected. Despite the scientific rigor on the methodology, we found possible causes such as lack of interest by participants, there were not available technological resources for them as we planned, deficient technical support and insufficient diffusion for this study.. All authors contributed equally to every phase of the article.