A Lexicon of Greek Personal Names: Volume VA. Coastal Asia Minor: Pontos to Ionia: 5
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After the fall of the Akkadian Empire in the midst century BC, the Assyrians, who were the northern branch of the Akkadian people, colonised parts of the region between the 21st and midth centuries BC and claimed its resources, notably silver. One of the numerous cuneiform records dated circa 20th century BC, found in Anatolia at the Assyrian colony of Kanesh , uses an advanced system of trading computations and credit lines. They were speakers of an Indo-European language, the Hittite language , or nesili the language of Nesa in Hittite.
The Hittites originated of local ancient cultures that grew in Anatolia, in addition to the arrival of Indo-European languages. Attested for the first time in the Assyrian tablets of Nesa around BC, they conquered Hattusa in the 18th century BC, imposing themselves over Hattian- and Hurrian-speaking populations. According to the widely accepted Kurgan theory on the Proto-Indo-European homeland , however, the Hittites along with the other Indo-European ancient Anatolians were themselves relatively recent immigrants to Anatolia from the north.
However, they did not necessarily displace the population genetically, they would rather assimilate into the former peoples' culture, preserving the Hittite language. The Hittites adopted the cuneiform script , invented in Mesopotamia. During the Late Bronze Age circa BC, they created a kingdom, the Hittite New Kingdom , which became an empire in the 14th century BC after the conquest of Kizzuwatna in the south-east and the defeat of the Assuwa league in western Anatolia. The empire reached its height in the 13th century BC, controlling much of Asia Minor, northwestern Syria and northwest upper Mesopotamia.
They failed to reach the Anatolian coasts of the Black Sea, however, as a non-Indo-European people, the semi-nomadic pastoralist and tribal Kaskians , had established themselves there, displacing earlier Palaic-speaking Indo-Europeans. The Egyptians eventually withdrew from the region after failing to gain the upper hand over the Hittites and becoming wary of the power of Assyria, which had destroyed the Mitanni Empire.
The Assyrians had better success than the Egyptians, annexing much Hittite and Hurrian territory in these regions. After BC, during the Late Bronze Age collapse , the Hittite empire disintegrated into several independent Syro-Hittite states , subsequent to losing much territory to the Middle Assyrian Empire and being finally overrun by the Phrygians , another Indo-European people who are believed to have migrated from the Balkans.
The Phrygian expansion into southeast Anatolia was eventually halted by the Assyrians, who controlled that region. Arameans encroached over the borders of south central Anatolia in the century or so after the fall of the Hittite empire, and some of the Syro-Hittite states in this region became an amalgam of Hittites and Arameans. These became known as Syro-Hittite states. Their language belonged to the same linguistic branch as Hittite.
From the 10th to late 7th centuries BC, much of Anatolia particularly the southeastern regions fell to the Neo-Assyrian Empire , including all of the Syro-Hittite states , Tabal , Kingdom of Commagene , the Cimmerians and Scythians and swathes of Cappadocia. The Neo-Assyrian empire collapsed due to a bitter series of civil wars followed by a combined attack by Medes , Persians , Scythians and their own Babylonian relations.
The last Assyrian city to fall was Harran in southeast Anatolia. This city was the birthplace of the last king of Babylon , the Assyrian Nabonidus and his son and regent Belshazzar. Much of the region then fell to the short-lived Iran-based Median Empire , with the Babylonians and Scythians briefly appropriating some territory.
Die griechische Kolonisation im nördlichen Schwarzmeeraum vom 7. bis 5. Jahrhundert v. Chr.
From the late 8th century BC, a new wave of Indo-European-speaking raiders entered northern and northeast Anatolia: the Cimmerians and Scythians. The Cimmerians overran Phrygia and the Scythians threatened to do the same to Urartu and Lydia , before both were finally checked by the Assyrians. Over several centuries, numerous Ancient Greek city-states were established on the coasts of Anatolia.
Greeks started Western philosophy on the western coast of Anatolia Pre-Socratic philosophy. In classical antiquity, Anatolia was described by Herodotus and later historians as divided into regions that were diverse in culture, language and religious practices. There were also several inland regions: Phrygia , Cappadocia , Pisidia and Galatia.
Anatolia is known as the birthplace of minted coinage as opposed to unminted coinage, which first appears in Mesopotamia at a much earlier date as a medium of exchange, some time in the 7th century BC in Lydia. The use of minted coins continued to flourish during the Greek and Roman eras.
The Ionian Revolt , as it became known, though quelled, initiated the Greco-Persian Wars , which ended in a Greek victory in BC, and the Ionian cities regained their independence. Following the death of Alexander and the breakup of his empire, Anatolia was ruled by a series of Hellenistic kingdoms, such as the Attalids of Pergamum and the Seleucids , the latter controlling most of Anatolia. A period of peaceful Hellenization followed, such that the local Anatolian languages had been supplanted by Greek by the 1st century BC. In BC the last Attalid king bequeathed his kingdom to the Roman Republic , and western and central Anatolia came under Roman control, but Hellenistic culture remained predominant.
Further annexations by Rome, in particular of the Kingdom of Pontus by Pompey , brought all of Anatolia under Roman control, except for the eastern frontier with the Parthian Empire , which remained unstable for centuries, causing a series of wars, culminating in the Roman-Parthian Wars.
Anatolia was one of the first places where Christianity spread, so that by the 4th century AD, western and central Anatolia were overwhelmingly Christian and Greek-speaking. For the next years, while Imperial possessions in Europe were subjected to barbarian invasions, Anatolia would be the center of the Hellenic world. It was one of the wealthiest and most densely populated places in the Late Roman Empire. Anatolia's wealth grew during the 4th and 5th centuries thanks, in part, to the Pilgrim's Road that ran through the peninsula.
Literary evidence about the rural landscape has come down to us from the hagiographies of 6th century Nicholas of Sion and 7th century Theodore of Sykeon. Large urban centers included Ephesus , Pergamum , Sardis and Aphrodisias. Scholars continue to debate the cause of urban decline in the 6th and 7th centuries variously attributing it to the Plague of Justinian , and the 7th century Persian incursion and Arab conquest of the Levant.
In the ninth and tenth century a resurgent Byzantine Empire regained its lost territories, including even long lost territory such as Armenia and Syria ancient Aram.
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In the 10 years following the Battle of Manzikert in , the Seljuk Turks from Central Asia migrated over large areas of Anatolia, with particular concentrations around the northwestern rim. In the following century, the Byzantines managed to reassert their control in western and northern Anatolia. In , the Mongols swept through eastern and central Anatolia, and would remain until The Ilkhanate garrison was stationed near Ankara. By the end of the 14th century, most of Anatolia was controlled by various Anatolian beyliks.
Smyrna fell in , and the last Byzantine stronghold in Anatolia, Philadelphia, fell in The Turkmen Beyliks were under the control of the Mongols, at least nominally, through declining Seljuk sultans. With the acceleration of the decline of the Ottoman Empire in the early 19th century, and as a result of the expansionist policies of the Russian Empire in the Caucasus , many Muslim nations and groups in that region, mainly Circassians , Tatars , Azeris , Lezgis , Chechens and several Turkic groups left their homelands and settled in Anatolia.
As the Ottoman Empire further shrank in the Balkan regions and then fragmented during the Balkan Wars , much of the non-Christian populations of its former possessions, mainly Balkan Muslims Bosnian Muslims, Albanians , Turks , Muslim Bulgarians and Greek Muslims such as the Vallahades from Greek Macedonia , were resettled in various parts of Anatolia, mostly in formerly Christian villages throughout Anatolia.
A continuous reverse migration occurred since the early 19th century, when Greeks from Anatolia, Constantinople and Pontus area migrated toward the newly independent Kingdom of Greece, and also towards the United States, southern part of the Russian Empire, Latin America and rest of Europe. Following the Russo-Persian Treaty of Turkmenchay and the incorporation of the Eastern Armenia into the Russian Empire, another migration involved the large Armenian population of Anatolia, which recorded significant migration rates from Western Armenia Eastern Anatolia toward the Russian Empire, especially toward its newly established Armenian provinces.
Anatolia remained multi-ethnic until the early 20th century see the rise of nationalism under the Ottoman Empire.
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During World War I, the Armenian Genocide , the Greek genocide especially in Pontus , and the Assyrian genocide almost entirely removed the ancient indigenous communities of Armenian , Greek , and Assyrian populations in Anatolia and surrounding regions. Following the Greco-Turkish War of — , most remaining ethnic Anatolian Greeks were forced out during the population exchange between Greece and Turkey. Many more have left Turkey since, leaving fewer than 5, Greeks in Anatolia today. Since the foundation of the Republic of Turkey in , Anatolia has been within Turkey, its inhabitants being mainly Turks and Kurds see demographics of Turkey and history of Turkey.
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Anatolia's terrain is structurally complex. A central massif composed of uplifted blocks and downfolded troughs , covered by recent deposits and giving the appearance of a plateau with rough terrain, is wedged between two folded mountain ranges that converge in the east.
True lowland is confined to a few narrow coastal strips along the Aegean, Mediterranean, and Black Sea coasts. There are two mountain ranges in southern Anatolia: the Taurus and the Zagros mountains. Anatolia has a varied range of climates. The central plateau is characterized by a continental climate, with hot summers and cold snowy winters.